As I sit down to put my R01A1 in for the July deadline, I am seriously looking at my prelim data. You must have prelim data for an R01. In the Olden Days it was sufficient to have prelim data that said “I can do the experiments”. This is no longer true. Now your prelim data must support the hypotheses that you have under each specific aim (you do have hypotheses under your specific aims, don’t you?). In essence, you have to have done the specific experiments you propose, and get results (maybe not significance, but qualitative results) that support your preferred hypothesis or your two alternatives.